Mounting evidence across diﬀerent disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the lifecycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population wellbeing, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, the authors first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide and evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. The authors conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and wellbeing throughout the lifecycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment and other indicators of socio-economic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the U.S. are eﬀective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are WIC, home visiting and high-quality, center based early childhood care and education.
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